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科学美国人60秒:海洋独角兽揭示声音活动

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This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Julia Rosen.
(CLIP: "Bye, Buddy. I hope you find your dad.")
(CLIP: "Thanks, Mr. Narwhal.")
In real life, narwhals don't speak English, like the one bidding farewell to Will Ferrell's character in the movie Elf. Instead, they sound more like this:
(CLIP: Whistles)
That's an audio clip recorded by scientists last summer under the icy waters of Northwest Greenland.
"If we want to describe what animals are doing, we first better understand what sounds are telling us."
Evgeny Podolskiy, a geophysicist at Hokkaido University in Japan. Podolskiy and his colleagues study the soundscape of glacial fjords. They are noisy places, where icebergs crash into the ocean and air bubbles fizz out of melting ice. These fjords are also home to narwhals.
The animals are sometimes called unicorns of the sea because of their single, long spiraled tusk. And they are shy, which makes them hard to study. So Podolskiy teamed up with local Inuit hunters, who snuck up on narwhals in kayaks and captured audio.
(CLIP: Echolocation)
That's the sound of a narwhal looking for food using echolocation, like a dolphin or a bat.
(Clip: Terminal buzz)
And that's a narwhal closing in on its prey, which it vacuums up into its toothless mouth.

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独角鲸.jpg
"It starts sounding like, to my ear, like a chainsaw or something: crrk, crrk, crrk, crrk. It's so many little clicks that we cannot even distinguish them. And this is recognized as foraging-related sound, used also by other animals. For example, other delphinoids or bats, they do the same trick. Because when they approach the target, the prey—which is, for narwhals, Arctic cod or Greenland halibut—they want to update their knowledge about the position of the target more frequently, because the target is moving. And they need to suck it in. That's why this interval is getting shorter. And we even—by using some simple assumptions in the equation—can know how far the animal is from the target."
The whistles you heard earlier are thought to be social calls, individuals communicating with other narwhals. The researchers reported these observations in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans.
"There are still sounds which we don't know what do they mean and there are several like this."
Podolskiy says that listening to narwhals is a first step toward understanding this mysterious whale and how it will cope as climate change, shipping and other human activities alter its Arctic home.
"There are all these things taking place right now in the region which will affect, somehow, these animals. But we have no clue even about the state or the previous state of these animals. So if we want to learn what's going to happen, we better start now. And I hope this is where sound monitoring can help us to learn more about these still mysterious creatures."
Thanks for listening for Scientific American's 60-second Science. I'm Julia Rosen.

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重点单词   查看全部解释    
clip [klip]

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n. 夹子,钳,回形针,弹夹
n. 修剪,(羊

 
social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
approach [ə'prəutʃ]

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n. 接近; 途径,方法
v. 靠近,接近,动

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distinguish [dis'tiŋgwiʃ]

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vt. 区别,辨认,使显著

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update [ʌp'deit]

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v. 更新,补充最新资料
n. 更新

 
interval ['intəvəl]

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n. 间隔,休息时间,(数学)区间,(音乐)音程

 
mysterious [mis'tiəriəs]

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adj. 神秘的,不可思议的

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glacial ['gleisiəl]

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adj. 冰的,冰川(期)的,非常冷的,缓慢的

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terminal ['tə:minl]

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n. 终端机,终点,终点站,末端
adj. 末

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understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

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vt. 理解,懂,听说,获悉,将 ... 理解为,认为<

 

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